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Manganese


Manganese is required in many enzyme systems including those involved in bone formation, energy production, and metabolism of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. It is essential for the utilisation of choline, thiamine, biotin, and vitamins C and E, is required for choline acetylcholine transfer, helps produce mucopolysaccharides, and stimulates the production of cholesterol. Manganese enhances smooth muscle relaxation, promotes normal growth and development, and cell function. It is absorbed in the small intestine and is stored in the bones, liver , kidney, pituitary gland, and pancreas.

FOOD SOURCES

Nuts, pulses, legumes, whole grains and seeds such as brown rice, green leafy vegetables, berries, avocados, buchu leaves, cloves, coffee, egg yolk, ginger, seaweed, pineapple.

SUPPLEMENTATION

Manganese amino acid chelate, manganese gluconate, manganese sulphate.

SIGNS OF DEFICIENCY

Developmental defects including growth retardation, blindness, bone and joint abnormalities, In adults, convulsions, deafness, paralysis, reproductive difficulty. Deficiency is extremely rare.

SIGNS OF TOXICITY

Very high chronic intake may lead to difficulty breathing, headaches, delusions, hallucinations, insomnia, depression, impotency, irritability, mental illness, motor difficulties, leg cramps, weakness. Symptoms of manganese toxicity are similar to Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease.

DAILY MINIMUM REQUIREMENT

2-5 mg approx.

 

 

 

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